Water-saving irrigation methods
1, field ground irrigation and soil drainage for seepage water transmission irrigation, can save water by 20%. It is an effective measure of water-saving irrigation to popularize the narrow furrow, change the short furrow, change the short ditch, control the amount of irrigation in the field, and improve the effective utilization rate of irrigation.
2, pipe irrigation is the use of low-pressure pipes (buried underground or laid ground) to transport irrigation water directly to the field, commonly used water pipelines are mostly hard plastic tubes or soft plastic tubes. The technology has the advantages of less investment, water saving, provincial work, land saving and energy consumption. Compared with the water transfer irrigation, the pipe irrigation can save 30%-50% water.
3, micro-irrigation has micro-sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation, seepage irrigation and other micro-tube irrigation. Is the irrigation pressure, filtration, by all levels of pipes and irrigation utensils irrigation near the crop root system, micro-irrigation belongs to local irrigation, only moist part of the soil. Suitable for some densely sown crops. Micro-irrigation is compared with ground irrigation. Can save 80%-85%. The combination of micro-irrigation and fertilization, the use of fertilizer to apply soluble fertilizer with water into the root area of crops, timely replenishment of crop needs of water and nutrients, yield production effect is good, micro-irrigation used in greenhouse cultivation and high-yield and efficient cash crops.
4. Sprinkler irrigation is to pressurize the irrigation water, through the pipeline, from the sprinkler nozzle to spray water on the irrigated land, sprinkler irrigation is currently field crops more ideal irrigation method, compared with the ground water transmission irrigation, sprinkler irrigation can save water 50-60%. However, the pipeline used for sprinkler irrigation needs high pressure, large investment of equipment, higher energy consumption and high cost, which is suitable for application in high efficiency cash crops or areas with good economic conditions and high production level.
5, the key period of irrigation under the condition of water resources shortage, the crop should be selected in the life of the most sensitive to the yield of the most affected period of irrigation, such as Gramineae crop extraction from the beginning to the heading period and grouting period to the milk ripening period, soybean flower bud differentiation period to the flowering stage and so on.
Water-saving and drought-resistant cultivation measures
1, deep ploughing deeply loose to the soil water storage, deep depth pine, break the bottom of the plow, thicken the living soil layer, increase water permeability, increase soil storage, reduce ground runoff, more savings and the use of natural precipitation. Corn Autumn seed before the deep ploughing 29 cm deepening loose to 35 cm, its seepage speed is 10-12 times faster than not deep ploughing, larger precipitation does not produce ground runoff, so that most of the precipitation is stored in the soil. It has been determined that for every 3 cm increase in the living soil layer, the storage per acre can be increased by 70-75 cubic meters. Thickening the living soil layer can promote the development of crop root system and improve the utilization rate of soil water.
2, the selection of drought-resistant varieties called crop camel peanut and other crops drought resistance is strong, in the lack of water and drought areas should be appropriately expanded planting area. There were also significant differences in drought resistance between different varieties of the same crop.
3. Increasing the amount of organic fertilizer can reduce the amount of water used in production units, and applying sufficient organic fertilizer on dry land can reduce the water consumption by 50% 60%, and in places where organic fertilizer is insufficient, we should vigorously implement the technique of straw returning to the field and improve the drought resistance of the soil. Rational application of fertilizer is also an effective measure to improve soil water utilization rate.
4, drought moisture conservation with ploughing and repression to protect soil moisture.
5, covering moisture conservation
(1) is film cover. The application of spring sowing crops can moisture conservation the temperature and resist the spring drought.
(2) is straw cover. The crop straw is crushed and evenly covered between crops or fruit trees to reduce soil moisture evaporation, increase soil water storage, and play a moisture conservation role.
Chemical control and drought resistance measures
1, water-retaining agent (potassium polyacrylate) in a short period of time to absorb its own weight of hundreds of times times to hundreds of thousands of moisture, will be used as seed coating, seedling bun root, or trench application, acupoint application, or ground spraying and other methods directly applied to the soil, as to the seeds and crop roots to repair a small reservoir. It absorbs water from the soil and air, and keeps the rain in the soil. When in drought, the water it preserves is released slowly for seed germination and crop growth.
2, drought resistant agent is an anti-transpiration agent, foliar spraying, can effectively control the opening degree of stomata, reduce foliar transpiration, effectively resist seasonal drought and dry hot air hazards. Spraying 1 times can be effective for 10-15 days. can also be used as mixing, soaking, rooting and dipping roots, improve seed germination rate, seedling neat, promote the development of root system, can shorten the slow seedling stage of transplanted crops, improve survival rate.
3, seed chemical treatment can improve seed germination rate, seedling seedlings strong. The main methods are:
(1) with 1% degrees of calcium chloride solution mixed seed, liquid ratio of 1:10, mix evenly, heap stuffy 5-6 hours after sowing.
(2) Soak with 0.1% concentration of calcium chloride solution, the liquid species ratio is 1:1, soak 5-6 hours after sowing.